WATSON, PAVLOV DAN THORNDIKE
1. J. B. Watson
Watson studied most of about the behavior of animal sand. He was much influenced by Ivan Pavlov. Watson said that behaviorism is a flawed basic assumptions about man and his relationship to the environment which have been accepted government and members of the powerful "scientific community".
In publishing Behavior, Watson hoped to achieve a wider popular circulation for his ideas which he hoped to infiltrate behaviorism into the introductory laboratory and the classroom. Watson succeeded in reaching those who were most open to change through this first textbook and through succeeding texts, Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist.
2. Ivan Pavlov
Classical conditioning which is a form of associative learning. Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions involve eyeblink conditioning, the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis and fear conditioning. For inducing classical conditioning, the typical procedure includes presentations of a neutral stimulus with a stimulus of some significance.
The most famous example of the experiment that involved the salivary conditioning was Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov realises that the dogs began to salivate in the presence of the lab technician by the presence of meat powder (an innate response to food that he called the unconditioned response).
In his initial experiment, the dogs started to salivate in response to the metronome. Thos was due to Pavlov used a metronome to call the up dogs to their food. So, a neutral stimulus (metronome) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) while the unconditioned stimulus (US) is the meat powder.
3. Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike set out to apply "the methods of exact science" to educational problems by emphasizing "accurate quantitative treatment of information". "Anything that exists, exists in a certain quantity and can be measured" (Johcich, as cited in Rizo, 1991).
-the formation of a connection between stimulus and response.
The "law of effect" :
-when a connection between a stimulus and response is positively rewarded it will be strengthened and when it is negatively rewarded it will be weakened. Negative reward, (punishment) did not necessarily weaken bonds, and that some seemingly pleasurable consequences do not necessarily motivate performance.
The "law of readiness" :
-because of the structure of the nervous system, certain conduction units, in a given situation, are more predisposed to conduct than others.